Using this perspective, researchers are said to be autonomous agents adopting positive values which give rise to a sense of moral duty ( Spinello, 2003 ). [54] Marc Siegel, Concussions and Football: New Helmets, New Tools, The Hill, Aug. 19, 2019. He saw the moral law as a categorical imperative—i.e., an unconditional command—and believed that its content could be established by human reason alone. But it also means disregarding the possible consequences of our actions when determining what is right and what is wrong. The point … [37] Everett J. Lehman et al., Suicide Mortality Among Retired National Football League Players Who Played 5 or More Seasons, American Journal of Sports Medicine, 44(10): 2486-2491 (2016). Russell, Children and Dangerous Sport and Recreation, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 34: 176-193 (2007). Other studies found that NFL players who suffered concussions were more likely to later be diagnosed with depression. Deontology is comprised of two components, which are the This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/topic/deontological-ethics, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy - Deontological Ethics. Or a deontologist can be an expressivist, a constructivist, atranscendentalist, a conventionalist, or a Divine command the… [79] Peter Benson, Big Football: Corporate Social Responsibility and the Culture and Color of Injury in America’s Most Popular Sport, Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 41(4): 307-334 (2017); Daniel Goldberg, What Does the Precautionary Principle Demand of Us? [3] Dave Bry, American Football is Too Dangerous, and It Should Be Abolished, The Guardian (UK), Jan. 4, 2016. Regarding sports concussions, President Obama stated: “We have to change a culture that says ‘you suck it up and play through a brain injury…. So, following the rules makes deontology easy to apply. Your focus must be on the actions taken instead of the results achieved. Why or why not. Why or why not? [21] Adnan A. Hirad, A Common Neural Signature of Brain Injury in Concussion and Subconcussion, Science Advances 5(8), Aug. 2019. 1. The government then forced more than 5000 inhabitants from their homes and villages, as well as from the amber mines. Deontologists believe that the goal of moral philosophy should be to figure out the “rules” for living a moral life and that once people know those rules they should follow them. Its name comes from the Greek word deon, meaning duty. [56] Christie Aschwanden, Football’s Concussion Crisis Is Awash with Pseudoscience, Wired.com, Oct. 2, 2019 (quoting brain scientists Adnan Hirad). Why or why not? Pamela R. Sailors, Personal Foul: An Evaluation of the Moral Status of Football, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 42(2): 269-286 (2015). You can hack the network and cancel the launch, but it’s against your professional code of ethics to break into any software system without permission. Deontological ethics suggest that you should always do the right thing, no matter what. [67] Adam M. Finkel & Kevin F. Bieniek, How Public Helath Science Evaluates Evidence, Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 25(3): 564-589 (2019). Many people who are in favor of abolishing football or significantly reforming the way it is played are pro-choice when it comes to abortion, minor drug use, and assisted suicide. Football causes more concussions than any other high school sport. Where the idea of right and wrong comes from is a question that stems from a branch of philosophy known as ethics. A study of 3,904 Wisconsin men found no significant harmful association between playing football in high school and cognitive impairment or depression later in life. Why or why not? Daniel Goldberg observes that “there is also a crucial social and political question that is not simply a function of that empirical evidence base: to what risks is it acceptable to expose youths and adolescents?”. Youth football players average 240 head impacts per season. Given the obvious conflict of interest, the studies have been criticized on that ground. [84] Ted Tatos, Playing Games with College Athletes’ Lives, The American Prospect, May 20, 2020. Before leaving this topic on deontology, it is important to understand a few of the criticisms of and objections to Kant’s moral theory: If acting on moral principle will lead to knowingly wrongful results, there is inherent moral compromise in not considering consequences. Rather, people are believed to be deserving of respect because of their humanity. Daniel Goldberg, What Does the Precautionary Principle Demand of Us? Actions that obey these rules are ethical, while actions that do not, are not. [61] Ingfei Chen, Exactly How Dangerous Is Football?, The New Yorker, Feb. 1, 2020. Both utilitarianism and deontology deal with the ethics and consequences of one’s actions and behavior despite the outcome. Thus, the supreme categorical imperative is: “Act only on that maxim through which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law.” Kant considered that formulation of the categorical imperative to be equivalent to: “So act that you treat humanity in your own person and in the person of everyone else always at the same time as an end and never merely as means.” The connection between those two formulations, however, has never been entirely clear. A collection of one-of-a-kind videos that highlight the ethical aspects of various subjects. Bry’s answer is that only the football players are being paid to do this “for our entertainment.”. 3. Deontological theories have been termed formalistic, because their central principle lies in the conformity of an action to some rule or law. 2. In some cases, amber contains inclusions, such as insects, whole or parts of animals, and plants that are trapped and preserved. Should we never lie? Despite its strengths, rigidly following deontology can produce results that many people find unacceptable. By contrast, teleological ethics (also called consequentialist ethics or consequentialism) holds that the basic standard of morality is precisely the value of what an action brings into being. There is no official state religion but the Myanmar government favors the majority Theravada Buddhism population. Discussion Questions on High Schools & Colleges, Discussion Questions on Youth Leagues (Under 14). [47] Ingfei Chen, Exactly How Dangerous Is Football?, The New Yorker, Feb. 1, 2020. [39] Atheendar S. Venkataramani et al, Association Between Playing American Football and Long-term Mortality, JAMA, 319(8): 800-806  (2018). The principle of autonomy stems from the theory of deontology (1). What is special about lying that makes us willing to look for all kinds of non-lying ways to accomplish what the lie accomplishes? [31] Christie Aschwanden, Football’s Concussion Crisis is Awash with Pseudoscience, Wired.com, Oct. 2, 2019. [65] Daniel Goldberg, What Does the Precautionary Principle Demand of Us? [18] Ernest L. Abel, Football Increases the Risk for Lou Gehrig’s Disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Perceptual Motor Skills, 104(3): 1251-1254 (20007). Deontology is the theory that a person should do his duty, based on whether the action taken is itself right or wrong under the applicable laws. Another study found that greater RHI exposure correlated with higher levels of plasma t-tau (a biomarker for CTE) in symptomatic former NFL players as compared to the study’s control group. Being Your Best Self, Part 1: Moral Awareness, Being Your Best Self, Part 2: Moral Decision Making, Being Your Best Self, Part 3: Moral Intent, Being Your Best Self, Part 4: Moral Action, Ethical Leadership, Part 1: Perilous at the Top, Ethical Leadership, Part 2: Best Practices, Curbing Corruption: GlaxoSmithKline in China, Deontology is an ethical theory that uses rules to distinguish right from wrong. Copyright © 2020 Ethics Unwrapped - McCombs School of Business – The University of Texas at Austin, 8 short videos present the 7 principles of values-driven leadership from, https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2019/08/amber-fossil-supply-chain-has-dark-human-cost/594601/, https://www.cell.com/current-biology/pdf/S0960-9822(19)31097-8.pdf, https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/2019/07/fossil-bird-in-amber-has-unusually-long-toes/, https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg24232280-600-blood-amber-the-exquisite-trove-of-fossils-fuelling-war-in-myanmar/, https://dc.law.utah.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1121&context=ulr, https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2019/05/fossils-burmese-amber-offer-exquisite-view-dinosaur-times-and-ethical-minefield, https://consult-myanmar.com/2018/07/11/myanmars-new-gold-mine-is-dinosaur-amber/, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982216311939?via%3Dihub, https://business.financialpost.com/commodities/mining/dodging-rumour-and-insurgency-the-hunt-for-burmese-amber-goes-to-the-heart-of-myanmars-turbulent-north, https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg24232283-300-it-is-time-to-bring-global-attention-to-the-trade-in-burmese-amber/, https://www.cdc.gov/traumaticbraininjury/index.html, https://www.cdc.gov/headsup/basics/concussion_whatis.html, https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy/symptoms-causes/syc-20370921, https://www.dispatch.com/news/20191124/student-athletes-still-reluctant-to-report-concussions-nationwide-childrens-study-finds, https://www.cnn.com/2019/10/15/health/concussion-high-school-sports-study/index.html, https://www.mlive.com/news/2019/11/what-parents-need-to-know-about-football-and-head-injuries.html, https://injuryprevention.bmj.com/content/24/3/180.full, https://www.espn.com/nfl/story/_/id/27372974/did-helmet-rule-actually-work-2018-how-change-2019, https://www.sportscasting.com/nfl-concussion-protocol-explained-how-does-it-work/, https://slate.com/culture/2015/12/the-truth-about-will-smiths-concussion-and-bennet-omalu.html, https://www.healthnewsreview.org/2018/01/sports-desks-drop-the-ball-on-big-concussion-story/, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Precautionary_principle, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harm_principle, https://www.washingtonpost.com/sports/2020/04/07/oklahoma-states-mike-gundy-says-his-team-needs-play-benefit-state-economy/. It is made from the words deon, which means duty and logos, which stands for study or science. A policy issue? 3352 (Dec. 2016). However, in letting the missile launch, thousands of people will die. Deontology is a theory that suggests actions are good or bad according to a clear set of rules. Is Getting Soft. The reality is that we still don’t know who is most likely to suffer a concussion, who will take longer to recover, how anatomic or genetic differences influence concussions, and who may be at risk of prolonged symptoms or developing cognitive problems later in life.”[34], Furthermore, many of the studies cited by those who would like to abolish tackle football have involved relatively small sample sizes. Over time more evidence has indicated that even mild concussions suffered by high school football players can cause serious consequences. Which approach do you think should be used to determine the ethicality of banning, or at least seriously reforming, football to reduce head trauma? The theory of deontology states we are morally obligated to act in accordance with a certain set of principles and rules regardless of outcome. [8] Such proteins develop in tangles that slowly strangle neurons and, consequently, inhibit brain function.[9]. What are the rules of deontology? Moralists have never claimed all deception is wrong, but some have claimed that all lying is wrong – and even if we don’t agree with their claim, we c… Kant believed that ethical actions follow universal moral laws, such as “Don’t lie. 5.2.4 Kantian Deontology: Objections and Criticisms. Myanmar amber is plentiful, high quality and contains inclusions within the resin. Players Hit Back, New York Times, Sept. 26, 2017. Ethicists Edward Spence defines ethics as 'a set of prescriptive rules, principles, values and virtues of character that inform and guide interpersonal and interpersonal conduct' (Spence and van Heekeren, 2005, p. 2). [Reporting a concussion] doesn’t make you weak, it means you’re strong.” On the other hand, President Trump has stated that rule changes to diminish head injuries are “ruining the game.”, One scientist said: “Don’t forget there’s risk in everything we do. [48] Kathleen Bachynski & Daniel S. Goldberg, Time Out: NFL Conflicts of Interest with Public Health Efforts to Prevent TBI, Injury Prevention, at https://injuryprevention.bmj.com/content/24/3/180.full; Ingfei Chen, Exactly How Dangerous Is Football?, The New Yorker, Feb. 1, 2020; Mark Fainaru-Wada & Steve Fainaru, League of Denial: The NFL, Concussions, and the Battle for Truth (2013). Kant held that nothing is good without qualification except a good will, and a good will is one that wills to act in accord with the moral law and out of respect for that law rather than out of natural inclinations. [13] Michael L. Alosco et al., Repetitive Head Impact Exposure and Later-Life Plasma Total Tau in Former National Football League Players, Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment and Disease Monitoring, 7: 33-40 (2017). [51] Kevin Seifer, Did the Helmet Rule Actually Work? Kantian ethics refers to a deontological ethical theory developed by German philosopher Immanuel Kant that is based on the notion that: "It is impossible to think of anything at all in the world, or indeed even beyond it, that could be considered good without limitation except a good will." Suicide rates among NCAA football players are the highest among all sports, but they are substantially lower than the general population age 18-22 or college students in that age range. If you took a utilitarian approach to answering this question, what would your reasoning look like? ... Kant’s principle of morality is the categorical imperative. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The word Deontology is derived from Greek. Deontology is the theory that a person should do his duty, based on whether the action taken is itself right or wrong under the applicable laws. [7] Julian E. Bailes et al., Role of Subconcussion in Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Review, Journal of Neurosurgery, 119: 1235-1245 (2013); Breton M. Asken, Research Gaps and Controversies in Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy: A Review, JAMA Neurology 74(10): 1255-1262 (2017); Philip H. Montenigro et al., Cumulative Head Impact Exposure Predicts Later-Life Depression, Apathy, Executive Dysfunction, and Cognitive Impairment in Former High School and College Players, Journal of Neurotraumua 34(2) (2017); Ann C. McKee et al., The Neuropathology of Sport, Acta Neuropathologica, 127: 29-51 (2014). [35]  Other studies have involved skewed samples, including one where all the NFL players’ brains had been donated because of mental declines that the donors had suffered before their deaths.[36]. We Know Little About the Long-term Effects of Concussions, Statnews, Sept.27, 2019. [41] Ashwin L. Rao et al., Suicide in National Collegiate Athletic (NCAA) Athletes: a 9-Year Analysis of the NCAA Resolutions Database, Sports Health 7(5): 452-457 (2015). [40] Thomas L. Schwenk, Depression and Pain in Retired Professional Football Players, Medicine & Science in Sports & Leisure, 39(4): 599-605 92007)(but finding that when coupled with difficult with pain, problems with sleep and social relations often followed). Football rules intentionally create high speed collisions between human beings, making such injuries inevitable and the sport controversial. Hence, lying is considered wrong, even if it is to benefit or bring about better consequences. [38] Jesse Mez et al., Duration of American Football Play and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopothy, Annals of Neurology, 2019; DOI: 10.1002/ana.25611. Another study of 35 former NFL players over age 50 who had sustained multiple concussions during their careers found no significant association between the length of careers, the number of concussions, and their level of cognitive function later in life. [20] Philip H. Montenigro et al., Cumulative Head Impact Exposure Predicts Later-Life Depression, Apathy, Executive Dysfunction, and Cognitive Impairment in Former High School and College Players, Journal of Neurotraumua 34(2) (2017). [47] There is also evidence that the NFL sought to influence the findings of some of the research it funded. Children between the ages of 9 and 14 make up the largest cohort of football players in the U.S. Discuss your reasoning. However, in 2017 the Myanmar government dropped leaflets from helicopters informing the population in northern Kachin that civilians and Kachin militants who remain in the region will be considered hostile opposition to the government military forces. (Roughly, a deontological theory looks at inputs rather than outcomes.) Deontology comes from the Greek word for duty, deon. [50] The NFL has also changed rules to discourage helmet-to-helmet contact,[51] and has instituted protocols for safely returning concussed players to the field. [80] Anthony E. Prior, The Slave Side of Sunday (2006). Deontology is the ethical theory that sees morality as doing one’s duty by following rules, without considering the probable consequences of one’s actions. How might the self-serving bias impact team physicians’ and trainers’ judgments and actions? However, the science in this area is truly not settled. [59] At the end of the day, the jury still seems to be out on the question of whether you can go to a football game or watch one on television and still feel good about yourself for supporting a sport that seems to cause irreversible traumatic brain injuries. Deontological ethics has at least three important features. ‘Deontology’, or ‘rule-based ethics’, focuses on duty, and the ethical principles derived from generally-accepted rules which guide actions. Over the last ten years, more than one billion dollars in legal revenue has been generated from the mining and sale of amber. Would you prevent kids under 14 from playing tackle football? Don’t cheat.”. [71] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harm_principle. African-Americans make up 12.6% of the American population but 68% of NFL rosters. They’re healthy … And people say that’s crazy. Ethics, Population Health Policy, and Sports-Related TBI, in Sociolcultural Examinations of Sports Concussions (Matt Ventresca & Mary McDonald eds, 2020). [85] Michael Cunningham, Player Safety Takes Back Seat as NCAA Rushes to Allow Campus Workouts, Atlanta Journal-Constitution, May 22, 2020 (quoting Huma). The deontological principle states that man is under a moral obligation to act in accordance with laid-down rules irrespective of the outcome. [81] Peter Benson, Big Football: Corporate Social Responsibility and the Culture and Color of Injury in America’s Most Popular Sport, Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 41(4): 307-334 (2017). Actions that obey these rules are ethical, while actions that do not, are not. Is this ever a consideration that buyers should take into account? In one study, use of newly-designed football helmets and safe tackling techniques eliminated concussions for 20 middle school aged players for an entire season. [5] Center for Disease Control, at https://www.cdc.gov/headsup/basics/concussion_whatis.html. [2] Steve Almond, Is It Immoral to Watch the Super Bowl?, New York Times, Jan. 24, 2014; Pamela R. Sailors, Personal Foul: An Evaluation of the Moral Status of Football, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 42(2): 269-286 (2015). Because an act served the purpose successfully does not make it ethically right. Updates? Utilitarianism takes no account of integrity - the accidental act or one done with evil intent if promoting good ends is the good act! How do we answer that question? Deontology, one of the most influential ethical frameworks proposed by Immanuel Kant, is focused on binding rules, obligation and duty (to family, country, church, etc. [14] Jesse Mez et al., Clinicopathological Evaluation of Chronic Traumatic Encepahalopathy in Players of American Football, JAMA, 318(4): 360-370 (2017). See Bennet I. Omalu et al, Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in a National Football League Player, Neurosurgery, 57: 128-134 (2005); [9] Ann McKee et al., The Neuropathology of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy, Brain Pathology, 25: 350-364 (2015). KANT’S OBJECTIONS TO UTILITARIANISM: 1. We Know Little About the Long-term Effects of Concussions, Statnews, Sept.27, 2019. [1] Ingfei Chen, Exactly How Dangerous Is Football?, The New Yorker, Feb. 1, 2020. An Analysis of Youth Football Head Impact Data, Neurosurgery (Jan. 2020), available at https://doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyz563. In essence, fulfilling one’s obligations is ethical, no matter what the impact will be on society. KANT’S OBJECTIONS TO UTILITARIANISM: 1. [89] Mariana Brussoni et al., Risky Play and Children’s Safety: Balancing Priorities for Optimal Child Development, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 9:3134-3148 (2012). Do you think that the NFL would make more safety-related changes if white players dominated rosters? He proceeds by analyzing and elucidatingcommonsense ideas about morality, including the ideas of a “goodwill” and “duty”. Most importantly, other studies seem to indicate that concussions may be more benign. Rather, people are believed to be deserving of respect because of their humanity. Steve Almond argues that “a civilian leisure class … has created, for its own entertainment, a caste of warriors too big and strong and fast to play a child’s game without grievously injuring one another.”. Many recent studies point to how dangerous football is to players’ long-term brain health. However, as a type of deontological ethics, its basic principle is that the morality of an action should not be based on its consequences but on whether such action is either right or wrong under a set of rules or as implied by the duty of the moral actor. Part of the reason is that “[m]ost of the time when a player has a concussion, standard medical imaging techniques do not show damage.”[31] No “gold standard” for diagnosing concussions currently exists. That objection was faced in the 20th century by the British moral philosopher Sir David Ross, who held that numerous “prima facie duties,” rather than a single formal principle for deriving them, are themselves immediately self-evident. Deontological theories have been termed formalistic, because their central principle lies in the conformity of an action to some rule or law. A study of former NFL players found that those who began playing football before age 12 tended to show greater later-life cognitive impairments as compared to those who began after age 12. ), rather than results or consequences. Others suggest that the uncertainty favors taking actions now rather than waiting until too much damage is done, as happened with tobacco. Is your opinion altered by the fact that the scientist quoted above is the neurologist for the Michigan State University football team? 4. Bry believes that this will never happen. For example, acts of lying, promise breaking, or murder are intrinsically wrong and we have a duty not to do these things. [50] Ken Belson, Judge Approves Deal in N.F.L. Deontology is often associated with philosopher Immanuel Kant. [72] Daniel Goldberg, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, the National Football League, and the Manufacture of Doubt: An Ethical, Legal, and Historical Analysis, Journal of Legal Medicine, 34: 157-191 (2013). Deontological theories are theories of morality that state that one should act out of duty. [91] J.S. Its prevalence is unknown, and the neuropathological diagnostic criteria are no more than preliminary. All three? Utilitarian? Some argue against paternalism and in favor of individual choice, believing that adults (at least) should be able to choose to engage in boxing (and presumably to play football) despite its potentially adverse consequences for brain health. 51 animated videos - 1 to 2 minutes each - define key ethics terms and concepts. Unlike consequentialism, which judges actions by their results, deontology doesn’t require weighing the costs and benefits of a situation. [77] Dave Bry, American Football is Too Dangerous, and It Should Be Abolished, The Guardian (UK), Jan. 4, 2016 (quoting CBS News quoting, in turn, Dr. John York). A decision is right if it conforms to relevant duties, principles,… Do you think this an ethical issue or just a policy issue? Again, these studies are broken down by league level: Studies such as these provide ammunition for those who defend organized football as an institution. Explain. One suggested solution to the concussion problem is to outlaw helmets on the theory that players will be forced to reduce headfirst collisions and other trauma-causing actions. Explain why and how using that approach might play out. According to research by neuroscientists, “There seems to be greater consequences if you’re getting your head hit when the brain is rapidly developing [below age 12].”. 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