[12][15] Other caves in the Tehuacan Valley from around the same time period also show early evidence for the presence and consumption of avocado. There are some reasons to think that the fruit, with its mildly toxic pit, may have coevolved with Pleistocene megafauna to be swallowed whole and excreted in their dung, ready to sprout. Find English words made by unscrambling letters avocado. Conservation of this genetic diversity has relied largely on field collection, as avocado seeds often do not survive storage in seed banks. [32] The use of an ethylene gas "ripening room", which is now an industry standard, was pioneered in the 1980s by farmer Gil Henry of Escondido, California, in response to footage from a hidden supermarket camera which showed shoppers repeatedly squeezing hard, unripe avocados, putting them "back in the bin," and moving on without making a purchase. [8] The avocado fruit is a climacteric,[9] single-seeded berry, due to the imperceptible endocarp covering the seed,[5][10] rather than a drupe. Commercial orchards produce an average of seven tonnes per hectare each year, with some orchards achieving 20 tonnes per hectare. Remember that, in German, both the spelling of the word and the article preceding the word can change depending on whether it is in the nominative, accusative, genitive, or dative case. Word Origin mid 17th cent. Clonal rootstocks are selected for tolerance of specific soil and disease conditions, such as poor soil aeration or resistance to the soil-borne disease (root rot) caused by Phytophthora. Panicles of flowers with deciduous bracts arise from new growth or the axils of leaves. After about a year of growing in a greenhouse, the young rootstocks are ready to be grafted. The two flowering types are A and B. A-cultivar flowers open as female on the morning of the first day and close in late morning or early afternoon. For further information, see Collins Easy Learning German Grammar. [15], Before 1915, the avocado was commonly referred to in California as ahuacate and in Florida as alligator pear. [57], In 2017, world production of avocados was 5.9 million tonnes, led by Mexico with 34% (2.01 million tonnes) of the total (table). French uses avocat, which also means lawyer, and "advocate" — forms of the word appear in several Germanic languages, such as the (now obsolete) German Advogato-Birne, the old Danish advokat-pære (today it is called avocado) and the Dutch advocaatpeer. [2] It is used in both savory and sweet dishes, though in many countries not for both. The Spaniards shortened this word to guacamole, the popular chip dip enjoyed throughout the Americas today. Cook, Robert E. "Attractions of the flesh." That is the case for programs at the University of California, Riverside, as well as the Volcani Centre and the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias in Chile. "Avocado" is the equivalent to Αβοκάντο in Greek, and I’m pretty sure you’ve heard it many times before already. The US government resisted, claiming the trade would introduce Tephritidae fruit flies that would destroy California's crops. Springer, Cham, 2018. The flesh is prone to enzymatic browning, quickly turning brown after exposure to air. English Gematria, Hebrew Gematria and Jewish Gematria and Numerology Birds also seem to be particularly sensitive to this toxic compound. In English, the word has almost the same pronunciation as the Spanish abogado, “lawyer.” In Mexico it is called the aguacate. Sometimes the Nahuatl word was used with the meaning "testicle", probably due to the avocado's perceived resemblance to a testicle. Having a high smoke point, avocado oil is expensive compared to common salad and cooking oils, and is mostly used for salads or dips. [83] The symptoms include gastrointestinal irritation, vomiting, diarrhea, respiratory distress, congestion, fluid accumulation around the tissues of the heart, and even death. [citation needed][76], Some people have allergic reactions to avocado. The avocado is unusual in that the timing of the male and female flower phases differs among cultivars. The subtropical species needs a climate without frost and with little wind. This is problematic, as field preservation of living cultivars is expensive, and habitat loss threatens wild cultivars. [16] The oldest discovery of an avocado pit comes from Coxcatlan Cave, dating from around 9,000 to 10,000 years ago. [50] Peru has now become the largest supplier of avocados imported to the European Union and the second largest supplier to Asia and the United States. See avocado in the Oxford Advanced American Dictionary Check pronunciation: avocado [13] A water jar shaped like an avocado, dating to AD 900, was discovered in the pre-Incan city of Chan Chan. [7] The flowers are inconspicuous, greenish-yellow, 5–10 mm (3⁄16–3⁄8 in) wide. Modern breeding programs tend to use isolation plots where the chances of cross-pollination are reduced. If there is no change by this time, the avocado pit is discarded. Send us feedback. 305-328. [46][47] Fallbrook, California, claims, without official recognition, the title of "Avocado Capital of the World" (also claimed by the town of Uruapan in Mexico[48]), and both Fallbrook and Carpinteria, California, host annual avocado festivals. Avocados have been known to grow large, so owners must be ready to re-pot the plant several times. 'Hass' avocados from Peru are seasonally available to consumers from May through September and are promoted under the auspices of the Peruvian Avocado Commission, headquartered in Washington, D.C. Other avocado cultivars include 'Spinks'. British English: avocado / ˌævəˈkɑːdəʊ / NOUN An avocado is a fruit in the shape of a pear with a dark green skin and a large stone inside it. Most cultivars are propagated by grafting, having originated from random seedling plants or minor mutations derived from cultivars. [44] In 2018, the US Department of Agriculture estimated that 231,028 hectares (570,880 acres) in total were under cultivation for avocado production in Mexico, a 6% increase over the previous year, and that 2 million tonnes would be exported. Remember that, in German, both the spelling of the word and the article preceding the word can change depending on whether it is in the nominative, accusative, genitive, or dative case. 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