The dermis is mostly dense, fibrous connective tissue. The epidermis is composed of keratinized, stratified squamous epithelium. The dermis is the layer of skin between the epidermis and subcutaneous tissue, and comprises two sections, the papillary dermis and the reticular dermis. This stored fat can serve as an energy reserve, insulate the body to prevent heat loss, and act as a cushion to protect underlying structures from trauma. The cutaneous membrane is the skin. Figure 3. Epidermis. The defect is primarily due to the inability of melanocytes to produce melanin. The cells in the stratum basale bond to the dermis via intertwining collagen fibers, referred to as the basement membrane. Exposure to the UV rays of the sun or a tanning salon causes melanin to be manufactured and built up in keratinocytes, as sun exposure stimulates keratinocytes to secrete chemicals that stimulate melanocytes. Recent studies indicate that a distressing percentage of our population is overweight and/or clinically obese. The keratinocytes in the stratum spinosum begin the synthesis of keratin and release a water-repelling glycolipid that helps prevent water loss from the body, making the skin relatively waterproof. Most skin disorders are relatively benign, but a few, including melanomas, can be fatal if untreated. It also has numerous sensory, and autonomic and sympathetic nerve fibers ensuring communication to and from the brain. The keratinocytes that compose the stratum lucidum are dead and flattened (see Figure 5.5). Cosmetic procedures, such as microdermabrasion, help remove some of the dry, upper layer and aim to keep the skin looking “fresh” and healthy. Skin and Membranes DRAFT. This happens when the oxygen supply is restricted, as when someone is experiencing difficulty in breathing because of asthma or a heart attack. (Micrograph provided by the Regents of University of Michigan Medical School © 2012). Underlying the papillary layer is the much thicker reticular layer, composed of dense, irregular connective tissue. This layer is well vascularized and has a rich sensory and sympathetic nerve supply. 0 times. Collagen injections and Retin-A creams help restore skin turgor by either introducing collagen externally or stimulating blood flow and repair of the dermis, respectively. These cells are especially abundant on the surfaces of the hands and feet. The body mass index (BMI) is often used as a measure of fat, although this measure is, in fact, derived from a mathematical formula that compares body weight (mass) to height. What are the basic functions of each of these layers? Figure 7. Skin Pigmentation. With a prolonged reduction in oxygen levels, dark red deoxyhemoglobin becomes dominant in the blood, making the skin appear blue, a condition referred to as cyanosis (kyanos is the Greek word for “blue”). Treatment of this disorder usually involves addressing the symptoms, such as limiting UV light exposure to the skin and eyes. The keratinocytes that compose the stratum lucidum are dead and flattened (see Figure 4). This stored fat can serve as an energy reserve, insulate the body to prevent heat loss, and act as a cushion to protect underlying structures from trauma. The four types of membranes are: 1) cutaneous membranes; 2) serous membranes; 3) mucous membranes; and 4) synovial membranes. Cells in this layer are shed periodically and are replaced by cells pushed up from the stratum granulosum (or stratum lucidum in the case of the palms and soles of feet). Most of the skin can be classified as thin skin. 3) Contains precursor of Keratin. ... cutaneous membrane. This layer also contains lymphatic capillaries, nerve fibers, and touch receptors called the Meissner corpuscles. The stratum basale (also called the stratum germinativum) is the deepest epidermal layer and attaches the epidermis to the basal lamina, below which lie the layers of the dermis. Melanin occurs in two primary forms. This thin layer of cells is found only in the thick skin of the palms, soles, and digits. These cells are densely packed with eleiden, a clear protein rich in lipids, derived from keratohyalin, which gives these cells their transparent (i.e., lucid) appearance and provides a barrier to water. This leads to a loss of color in patches (Figure 9). Thus, the amount of melanin present in our skin is dependent on a balance between available sunlight and folic acid destruction, and protection from UV radiation and vitamin D production. Individuals with vitiligo experience depigmentation that results in lighter colored patches of skin. EM × 2700. Save. The stratum lucidum is a smooth, seemingly translucent layer of the epidermis located just above the stratum granulosum and below the stratum corneum. In much of the developed world, insufficient exercise coupled with the ready availability and consumption of high-calorie foods have resulted in unwanted accumulations of adipose tissue in many people. In man the outer skin contains hair, sweat glands, and sebaceous (oil) glands. Beneath the dermis lies the hypodermis, which is composed mainly of loose connective and fatty tissues. Men tend to accumulate fat in different areas (neck, arms, lower back, and abdomen) than do women (breasts, hips, thighs, and buttocks). (credit: modification of work by “kilbad”/Wikimedia Commons). However, in these cases the effect on skin color has nothing do with the skin’s pigmentation. The skin protects the body by providing three types of barriers. skin derivatives/accessory structures A. sweat glands B. … As new keratinocytes are produced atop the stratum basale, the keratinocytes of the stratum spinosum are pushed into the stratum granulosum. The hypodermis consists of well-vascularized, loose, areolar connective tissue and adipose tissue, which functions as a mode of fat storage and provides insulation and cushioning for the integument. The superficial papillary dermis interdigitates with the overlying rete ridges of the epidermis, between which the two layers interact through the basement membrane zone. The dermis might be considered the “core” of the integumentary system (derma– = “skin”), as distinct from the epidermis (epi– = “upon” or “over”) and hypodermis (hypo– = “below”). The second is a melanocyte, a cell that produces the pigment melanin. Melanin gives hair and skin its color, and also helps protect the living cells of the epidermis from ultraviolet (UV) radiation damage. 1. Name the two layers of the cutaneous membrane: epidermis, dermis: Name the three types of accessory structures: hair, nails and glands: What type of tissue is the epidermis made of? The desmosomes interlock with each other and strengthen the bond between the cells. Dermis - the dense fibrous connective tissue layer beneath the epidermis. Although periodic accumulation of excess fat may have provided an evolutionary advantage to our ancestors, who experienced unpredictable bouts of famine, it is now becoming chronic and considered a major health threat. skin The skin and its accessory structures make up the integumentary system, which provides the body with overall protection. All of the keratinocytes are produced from this single layer of cells, which are constantly going through mitosis to produce new cells. The epidermis is epithelium composed of multiple layers of cells. The epidermis contains no blood vessels, and cells in the deepest layers are nourished by diffusion from blood capillaries extending to the upper layers of the dermis. Two other cell types are found dispersed among the basal cells in the stratum basale. Anatomy & Physiology continues with a look at your biggest organ - your skin.Pssst... we made flashcards to help you review the content in this episode! Recent studies indicate that a distressing percentage of our population is overweight and/or clinically obese. Not only is this a problem for the individuals affected, but it also has a severe impact on our healthcare system. Over the course of around 4 weeks, they make their way to the surface, becom… Q. The cells in the different layers of the epidermis originate from basal cells located in the stratum basale, yet the cells of each layer are distinctively different. As the name suggests, the stratum spinosum is spiny in appearance due to the protruding cell processes that join the cells via a structure called a desmosome. Figure 9. Vitiligo. In many animals, there is a pattern of storing excess calories as fat to be used in times when food is not readily available. protection (prevents loss of body fluids, inhibits invasion of bacteria, and filters out UV light rays; basically keeps insides in and outside out) AÂ, Identify the components of the integumentary system, Describe the layers of the skin and the functions of each layer, Identify and describe the hypodermis and deep fascia, Describe the role of keratinocytes and their life cycle, Describe the role of melanocytes in skin pigmentation. The color of skin is influenced by a number of pigments, including melanin, carotene, and hemoglobin. Moles are larger masses of melanocytes, and although most are benign, they should be monitored for changes that might indicate the presence of cancer (Figure 8). Skin that has four layers of cells is referred to as “thin skin.” From deep to superficial, these layers are the stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, and stratum corneum. epithelial membranes: cutaneous, mucous, and serous: connective tissue membranes: synovial capsules, bursae, and tendons: cutaneous membrane: the skin: ... outer layer of skin: dermis: inner layer of skin: hypodermis (subcutaneous tissue) adipose tissue: tissue of the epidermis: made of stratified squamous epithelium: strata Although you may not typically think of the skin as an organ, it is in fact made of tissues that work together as a single structure to perform unique and critical functions. Its located on the outside of the body, and is known as the skin. Tags: Question 18 . Dark-skinned individuals can also get sunburns, but are more protected than are pale-skinned individuals. These structures populate the landscape of our skin. The stratum corneum is the most superficial layer of the epidermis and is the layer exposed to the outside environment (see Figure 5.5). The cells (three to five layers deep) become flatter, their cell membranes thicken, and they generate large amounts of the proteins keratin, which is fibrous, and keratohyalin, which accumulates as lamellar granules within the cells (see Figure 4). The entire layer is replaced during a period of about 4 weeks. The skin’s primary role is to help protect the rest of the body’s tissues and organs from physical damage such as abrasions, chemical damage such as detergents, and biological damage from microorganisms. The cells (three to five layers deep) become flatter, their cell membranes thicken, and they generate large amounts of the proteins keratin, which is fibrous, and keratohyalin, which accumulates as lamellar granules within the cells (see Figure 5.5). In a growing fetus, fingerprints form where the cells of the stratum basale meet the papillae of the underlying dermal layer (papillary layer), resulting in the formation of the ridges on your fingers that you recognize as fingerprints. Unstained epidermis samples do not exhibit this characteristic appearance. Individuals with albinism tend to appear white or very pale due to the lack of melanin in their skin and hair. This layer is well vascularized and has a rich sensory and sympathetic nerve supply. Two other cell types are found dispersed among the basal cells in the stratum basale. The Cutaneous Membrane (skin) - Anatomy Cutaneous Membrane. The reticular layer appears reticulated (net-like) due to a tight meshwork of fibers. Elastin fibers provide some elasticity to the skin, enabling movement. LM × 10. Cosmetic procedures, such as microdermabrasion, help remove some of the dry, upper layer and aim to keep the skin looking “fresh” and healthy. Therefore, its accuracy as a health indicator can be called into question in individuals who are extremely physically fit. Recall that melanin helps protect the skin from the harmful effects of UV radiation. In addition, the papillary layer contains phagocytes, defensive cells that help fight bacteria or other infections that have breached the skin. Dead cells are shed continuously from the epidermis as new ones take their place. 2) Consists of 3-5 layers of clear, flat, dead cells. “Thick skin” is found only on the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet. The hypodermis is home to most of the fat that concerns people when they are trying to keep their weight under control. Men tend to accumulate fat in different areas (neck, arms, lower back, and abdomen) than do women (breasts, hips, thighs, and buttocks). e A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs. an hour ago. It has a fifth layer, called the stratum lucidum, located between the stratum corneum and the stratum granulosum (Figure 2). The body mass index (BMI) is often used as a measure of fat, although this measure is, in fact, derived from a mathematical formula that compares body weight (mass) to height. synovial membrane. Collagen fibers provide structure and tensile strength, with strands of collagen extending into both the papillary layer and the hypodermis. A couple of the more noticeable disorders, albinism and vitiligo, affect the appearance of the skin and its accessory organs. Interspersed among the keratinocytes of this layer is a type of dendritic cell called the Langerhans cell, which functions as a macrophage by engulfing bacteria, foreign particles, and damaged cells that occur in this layer. View thisÂ, This ABC video follows the story of a pair of fraternal African-American twins, one of whom is albino. In addition, collagen binds water to keep the skin hydrated. Dermal papillae increase the strength of the connection between the epidermis and dermis; the greater the folding, the stronger the connections made (Figure 4). It is exposed to air= dry membrane. It also has numerous sensory, and autonomic and sympathetic nerve fibers ensuring communication to and from the brain. It is considered an epithelial membrane. This dry, dead layer helps prevent the penetration of microbes and the dehydration of underlying tissues, and provides a mechanical protection against abrasion for the more delicate, underlying layers. The dermis is made of two layers of connective tissue that compose an interconnected mesh of elastin and collagenous fibers, produced by fibroblasts (Figure 6). We shed around 500 millionskin cells each day. The stratum lucidum is a smooth, seemingly translucent layer of the epidermis located just above the stratum granulosum and below the stratum corneum. The hypodermis (also called the subcutaneous layer or superficial fascia) is a layer directly below the dermis and serves to connect the skin to the underlying fascia (fibrous tissue) of the bones and muscles. Although neither is fatal, it would be hard to claim that they are benign, at least to the individuals so afflicted. It holds most of the body’s fat, so it varies in thickness from one person to another. Although you may not typically think of the skin as an organ, it is in fact made of tissues that work together as a single structure to perform unique and critical functions. Figure 2. Thin Skin versus Thick Skin. From top, LM × 40, LM × 40. The first is a Merkel cell, which functions as a receptor and is responsible for stimulating sensory nerves that the brain perceives as touch. Recall that melanin is produced by cells called melanocytes, which are found scattered throughout the stratum basale of the epidermis. sngoebel_49522. Edit. Cutaneous membrane - skin. (Micrograph provided by the Regents of University of Michigan Medical School © 2012). The increased keratinization (also called cornification) of the cells in this layer gives it its name. The melanin is transferred into the keratinocytes via a cellular vesicle called a melanosome (Figure 7). They also tend to be more sensitive to light and have vision problems due to the lack of pigmentation on the retinal wall. Stratified columnar, stratified squamous, stratified cuboidal, and transitional. Membranes are thin layers of epithelial tissue usually bound to an underlying layer of connective tissue. What layer of skin is A? The skin consists of two main layers and a closely associated layer. It is not strictly a part of the skin, although the border between the hypodermis and dermis can be difficult to distinguish. Figure 6. Layers of the Dermis. This stained slide shows the two components of the dermis—the papillary layer and the reticular layer. As the name suggests, the stratum spinosum is spiny in appearance due to the protruding cell processes that join the cells via a structure called a desmosome. Mucous (mucosa) membranes line the insides of hollow organs that open to the outside. Interspersed among the keratinocytes of this layer is a type of dendritic cell called the Langerhans cell, which functions as a macrophage by engulfing bacteria, foreign particles, and damaged cells that occur in this layer. In many animals, there is a pattern of storing excess calories as fat to be used in times when food is not readily available. 4) If this layer of skin is present, it will be the 2nd most superficial layer of skin, lying superior to the Stratum Granulosum, and deep to the Stratum Corneum. The entire layer is replaced during a period of about 4 weeks. Epidermis - the outer layers of the skin up to 5 layers thick. In contrast, too much melanin can interfere with the production of vitamin D, an important nutrient involved in calcium absorption. The cells in all of the layers except the stratum basale are called keratinocytes. Moles range from benign accumulations of melanocytes to melanomas. This layer also contains lymphatic capillaries, nerve fibers, and touch receptors called the Meissner corpuscles. This dry, dead layer helps prevent the penetration of microbes and the dehydration of underlying tissues, and provides a mechanical protection against abrasion for the more delicate, underlying layers. The basal layer consists of cuboidal cells, whereas the outer layers are squamous, keratinized cells, so the whole epithelium is often described as being keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. Skin is the layer of usually soft, flexible outer tissue covering the body of a vertebrate animal, with three main functions: protection, regulation, and sensation.. Other animal coverings, such as the arthropod exoskeleton, have different developmental origin, structure and chemical composition.The adjective cutaneous means "of the skin" (from Latin cutis 'skin'). Cutaneous glands - sweat and oil glands of the skin. The dermal papillae extending into the epidermis belong to the papillary layer, whereas the dense collagen fiber bundles below belong to the reticular layer. Cutaneous membranes = skin = Integumentary system. The stratum spinosum is composed of eight to 10 layers of keratinocytes, formed as a result of cell division in the stratum basale. Edit. Monday, December 7, 2020 Anatomy Chpt. The stratum corneum is the most superficial layer of the epidermis and is the layer exposed to the outside environment (see Figure 4). Skin that has four layers of cells is referred to as “thin skin.” From deep to superficial, these layers are the stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, and stratum corneum. The stratum spinosum is composed of eight to 10 layers of keratinocytes, formed as a result of cell division in the stratum basale (Figure 5). The transitional area where the skin and mucous membrane meet: Term. The increased keratinization (also called cornification) of the cells in this layer gives it its name. Changes in lifestyle, specifically in diet and exercise, are the best ways to control body fat accumulation, especially when it reaches levels that increase the risk of heart disease and diabetes. The stratum basale (also called the stratum germinativum) is the deepest epidermal layer and attaches the epidermis to the basal lamina, below which lie the layers of the dermis. The second is a melanocyte, a cell that produces the pigment melanin. Melanin gives hair and skin its color, and also helps protect the living cells of the epidermis from ultraviolet (UV) radiation damage. Report an issue . Usually, the epithelial layer of the membrane consists of either stratified squamous epithelium (multiple layers of epithelial cells, the top layer being flattened) or simple columnar epithelium (a layer of column-shaped epithelial cells, the cells being significantly greater in height than width). The papillary layer is made of loose, areolar connective tissue, which means the collagen and elastin fibers of this layer form a loose mesh. View this animation to learn more about layers of the skin. When there is an irregular accumulation of melanocytes in the skin, freckles appear. It's superficial epidermis is made up of squamous keratinizing epithelium. Chapter 4 Skin and Body Membranes 59 INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM (SKIN) Basic Functions of the Skin 3. LM × 40. Fat distribution changes as our bodies mature and age. The first thing a clinician sees is the skin, and so the examination of the skin should be part of any thorough physical examination. Not only is this a problem for the individuals affected, but it also has a severe impact on our healthcare system. 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