The application of irrigation water where the entire surface of the soil is covered by ponded water. Furrow irrigation utilizes small channels or ditches between planted rows to convey water across a field. 15.1a). While it is still a common method of irrigation, it also requires an extraordinary amount of water, lacks in uniformity and is the most difficult to manage due to its dependence on soil properties and field topography. Common surface irrigation systems used are rill irrigation, furrow or border irrigation. ­Though initially expensive -- between $500 and $1000 per acre -- and not suitable­ for many areas, the economical advantages of drip irrigation can be further enhanced by placing the irrigation tubing about 5 inches (about 12.7 centimeters) below the surface. As a result it is very difficult to understand the hydraulics of surface irrigation. Basins range widely in size from only a few square feet (orchard crops) to a few hundred square feet. various irrigation systems to decide the merits and demerits of the potential alternates of irrigation system. Surface irrigation is one of the oldest irrigation techniques in the world and is still used the most out of all irrigation techniques across the globe. Types of Surface Irrigation Systems Surface irrigation systems can be classified into three major types: basin, border, and furrow systems. Today, this is still one of the most popular methods of crop irrigation. Varied quantities of water are allowed on the fields at different times. Throughout the world, this is the most commonly used type of irrigation process. With flood irrigation, the entire land area to be irrigated is covered with water. The common types of irrigation methods, along with their capabilities and limitations are covered in the following sections. Surface Irrigation Methods John T. Phelan and Wayne D. Criddle There are three general methods of applying irrigation water to the land. In sprinkler irrigation the water is Surface Methods. The term ‘surface irrigation’ refers to a broad class of irrigation methods in which water is distributed over the field by overland flow. In surface irrigation the soil is the reservoir from which the plants draw the water they need. Hence, flow of water under surface irrigation comes under unsteady flow. Surface Irrigation: In this method water flows and spreads over the surface of the land. It is the most commonly used irrigation methods and is well suited to mild slopes as well as regular slopes. Part 623 National Engineering Handbook Chapter 4 Surface Irrigation 4–iv (210–VI–NEH, September 2012) Table 4–1 General comparison of surface irrigation surface 4–10 methods Table 4–2 Average rooting depths selected crops in deep, 4–22 well-drained soils There may be no method of controlling water flow other than the topography of the land. The soil also con- veys and distributes the water over the field. This is a tried and true method which could work for a variety of people in different growing situations and conditions. Irrigation Methods Irrigation water may be applied to crops by flooding the field surface, by A flow is introduced at one edge of the field and covers the field gradually. Surface Irrigation is a kind of irrigation where gravity works its best. Border method of irrigation is a method of surface flooding wherein the water is applied to the field divided into strips separated by parallel ridges (Fig. Flood Irrigation (also called surface irrigation) uses the soil surface to flow water down the field from high to low areas. Surface irrigation also works best in soil with fine texture with medium to minimum infiltration rate. In Surface Irrigation, water is applied and distributed over the soil surface by the help of gravity. 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